Epidemiology of CRAS and its components
The coexistence of CHF, CKD and anaemia (CRAS) is associated with worsening of symptoms and represents a serious medical problem.1
However, the scale of the problem is unclear and available estimates of the prevalence of CRAS vary widely:
- two studies showed considerably different estimates at 3.2%2 and 22%3 for the proportion of CHF patients having both the comorbidities of anaemia and CKD.
The current lack of data on CRAS prevalence, pathophysiology and consequences warrants in-depth study, which will prove essential for developing appropriate multidisciplinary management strategies.
1. Silverberg D et al. Clin Exp Nephrol 2009;13:101–106
2. Ezekowitz JA et al. Circulation 2003;107:223–225
3. de Silva R et al. Am J Cardiol 2006;98:391–398